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    OALib Journal期刊

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    匹配条件: “Stephen Manortey” ,找到相关结果约12099条。
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    Determinants of Male Involvement in Family Planning 竞彩网app下载安装: A Case Study in the Tema Metropolis, Ghana  [PDF]
    Stephen Manortey, Kenneth Missah
    Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106043
    Abstract:
    Background: Usage of family planning services in developing countries has been found to avert unintended pregnancies, and drastically reduce maternal and child mortality. Men as the main decision-makers in most of African families have an important role to play towards acceptance of family planning methods; however, its usage still remains low. The primary ob-jective of this study was to investigate the factors that influence male in-volvement in family planning. Method: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted within the Tema Metropolis in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. The chosen research approach provided an oppor-tunity to interact with adult male respondents to access their perceived factors that contribute to their level of involvement in family planning programs. A stratified sampling technique was used to recruit 227 partici-pants aged (19 - 58) years using a well-structured questionnaire. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were respectively conducted to estimate frequencies, measure the level of associations and predict outcomes on selected variables outputs. Results: The study revealed that a little over two-thirds (68.72%) of the respondents disagreed that total family planning is an issue for only women. The majority (83.26%) of the respondents, said their communities accept the act of men accompanying their wives or partners for family planning services, though 36.12% of them reported that their family and friends see it strange for men to attend family planning with their wives/partners. Among the 34.4% of respondents who reported ever attending any such family planning clinic, 56.41% have attended just once. Marital status, employment status and knowledge about family planning of respondents were positively associated with male involvement in family planning (p-value < 0.05). The odds of a male involvement in family planning progressively increase in relationship to the depth of knowledge one has on family planning. However, being old (46 - 58 yrs), unmarried and self employed, significantly served as protective factors against male participation in family planning. Conclusion: In this study, the level of male involvement was low, although most men were aware of family planning in the Tema Municipal. Old age, being unmarried and self-employed were the factors that influence male involvement in family planning. Thus, there is a need for the office of the Metro Health Directorate to intensify health education on the benefits of family planning with male involvement. The family planning programs should incorporate the responsibility and role of males in the uptake of family planning service.
    A Spatial Perspective to the Distribution of Healthcare Facilities and Health Personnel in the Eastern Region of Ghana  [PDF]
    Stephen Manortey, Gideon Kwarteng Acheampong
    Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102956
    Abstract:
    Background: A major factor for health services provision in various communities is the concern for spatial justice in the distribution of healthcare facilities. The eastern region with most of its population in rural areas has been subject to frequent increases in the number of administrative districts over time. This however has not correspondingly followed with a significant increase in the number of health facilities and health personnel in the region, a phenomenon that has disturbed the distribution of health facilities and personnel, thus the purpose of this study to investigate the spatial pattern in the distribution of health facilities and health personnel. Methods: Data on the global positioning system of each health facility and the total number of health workers were factored with the population in the administrative districts of the eastern region as part of analysis to investigate the distribution of health facilities and health personnel per population of each district and the Region. Results: Health facilities and health personnel were unevenly distributed, recently added districts such as Kwahu Afram Plains South, Ayensuano, Upper West Akim along with existing ones such as Birim South, Kwahu West, Akyem Mansa, and Kwahu East all lacked in terms of health facilities and health personnel. Conclusions: This observed deficiency in distribution of health facilities and health personnel has the potential to generate productivity inequalities among residents of the Eastern Region which in turn has a negative effect on the entire development of the region. Areas that were identified as disadvantaged districts should be considered for various intervention strategies.
    Factors Influencing Teenage Pregnancy in the Lower Manya Krobo Municipality in the Eastern Region of Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study  [PDF]
    John Yao Bedzo, Stephen Manortey
    Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105966
    Abstract:
    Aim: This study attempted to 1) assess the factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in the Lower Manya Krobo Municipality; 2) specifically determine whether peer influence and sexual behaviour, electronic media and poverty, knowledge and use of contraceptives, and sex education contributed to teenage pregnancy; and 3) also determine the prevalence of teenage pregnancy and finally solicit for suggestions on how to curb the problem. The findings will help inform policymakers to further set in place measures to mitigate its adverse effects. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of teenage pregnancy and its predictors among the target population between January and March 2019. Structured questionnaires were administered to 223 selected teenagers in a face-to-face interview setting within eight selected communities in the municipality by trained fieldworkers. Descriptive estimates including the prevalence of the condition were calculated. Both crude and adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the level of associations between selected variables. Conclusion: Teenage pregnancy is a public health threat in the municipality. There is, therefore, the need for the establishment of more “teenage health corners” to cater for the health needs of the teenagers. An extensive and devoted focus on girl-child education is also an important solution to deal with the increasing prevalence of teenage pregnancy.
    Verbal autopsy: an analysis of the common causes of childhood death in the Barekese sub-district of Ghana
    Stephen Manortey,Adrienne Carey,Daniel Ansong,Ryan Harvey
    Journal of Public Health in Africa , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/jphia.2011.e18
    Abstract: The availability of mortality data for any society plays an essential role in health monitoring and evaluation, as well as in the design of health interventions. However, most resource-poor countries such as Ghana have no reliable vital registration system. In these instances, verbal autopsy (VA) may be used as an alternative method to gather mortality data. In rural Ghana, the research team utilized a VA questionnaire to interview caretakers who were present with a child under the age of five prior to death. The data was given to two physicians who independently assigned the most probable cause of death for the child. A third, blinded physician analyzed the data in the cases where the first two physicians disagreed. When there was agreement between physicians, this was assigned as the cause of death for the individual child. During the study period, we recorded 118 deaths from 92 households. Twenty-nine (24.6%) were neonatal deaths with the leading causes of death being neonatal sepsis, birth asphyxia and pneumonia. The remaining 89 (75.4%) were post-neonatal deaths with the most common causes of death being pneumonia, malaria and malnutrition. While 63/118 (53.4%) deaths occurred in the home, there is no statistically significant relationship between the location of the home and the time of travel to the nearest health facility (P=0.132). VA is an important epidemiological tool for obtaining mortality data in communities that lack reliable vital registration systems. Improvement in health care is necessary to address the large number of deaths occurring in the home.
    Evaluating Factors Associated with the Use of Aphrodisiacs among Adult Male Residents in Ashaiman Municipality, Ghana  [PDF]
    Stephen Manortey, Portia Afi Mensah, Gideon Kwarteng Acheampong
    Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104876
    Abstract:
    Background: There is limited scientific evidence supporting the efficacy of aphrodisiacs and more worrying is the fact that potential adverse health effects could result from the abuse of aphrodisiacs. Despite the safety concerns raised by the FDA on the abuse of unregistered sex enhancing products, the patronage remains high amidst debilitating side effects. We explore the factors influencing the use of aphrodisiacs while assessing the prevalence of aphrodisiac usage among men in the Ashaiman Municipality of Greater Accra Region, Ghana. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and March 2018 at the Ashaiman Municipality. Structured questionnaires were administered to 370 consented and purposively selected adult males (18 years and above) through interviews. Data on variables such as respondent’s socio-demographic characteristics, sexual characteristics, knowledge and use of aphrodisiacs were obtained. Analysis was done with aphrodisiac use as the main outcome of interest. A bivariate statistical analysis was done with aphrodisiac use as the main outcome of interest. Results: Out of the 352 men, 52.6% reported ever using aphrodisiacs at some points in their lives. Majority (68.7%) of the users first used aphrodisiacs between the ages of 18 and 25 years. Usage was found to be higher among those with lower educational attainment. Number of sexual partners, the presence of sexual problems, advertisement, and knowledge of side effects were statistically associated with the use of aphrodisiac (p < 0.05). About 50% of the aphrodisiac users had no sexual problems indicating recreational use. Majority of the responders (52.4%) acquired the aphrodisiacs from drug peddlers. Conclusions: This study revealed the use of aphrodisiac is still high among adult males, and that the participants’ levels of education and knowledge of side effects serve as a protective factor to the likelihood of using aphrodisiacs. There is a need for health institutions to embark on extensive educational programmes to educate the public on the devastating health consequences from the indiscriminate use of aphrodisiacs without medical indication.
    Resilience: The New Paradigm in Disaster Management—An Australian Perspective
    Stephen Jenkins, Stephen Jenkins
    World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2015.33C020
    Abstract:

    During past decades, frameworks relating to emergency and disaster management have been based on a risk management approach to prevention/mitigation and preparedness coupled with a strong emphasis on response by police and emergency service organisations. Numerous reviews and inquiries of significant events however have identified significant issues relating to the preparation for such events and the management thereof; in particular, critical shortcomings in the capability of emergency response agencies, their leaders and senior decision-makers. In 2008, the Australian Government, through The First National Security Statement to the Australian Parliament by Prime Minister Rudd, has incorporated non-traditional threats and hazards, such as those posed by the impact of climate change, on the national security agenda. In doing so, the Government has announced a paradigm shift in policy for the nation’s approach to emergency and disaster management, namely a move from “response” to “resilience”. In support of this policy shift, the Australian Government, through the Council of Australian Governments, has endorsed the National Strategy for Disaster Resilience and the Critical Infrastructure Resilience Strategy. These documents make resilience the responsibility of all levels of government, private industry, emergency response agencies, and the community. A review of the reports published following Australian reviews and inquiries into significant events has identified that existing frameworks do not provide the necessary mechanisms for baselining and assessing community resilience, that is, their ability to respond to and recover from significant events. Internationally, indices have been developed for assessing community resilience, however, inherent limitations have also been identified in their scope and application. This paper will review Australian and international events which have led to inquiries that have resulted in criticisms of the emergency and disaster response, as well as introducing the organisational capability and resilience of organisations particularly in the context of climate change.

    Assessing Bias: The Qualitative in the Quantitative, Darfuri War Fatalities and the Morality of War
    Stephen Reyna
    Sociology Mind (SM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2011.13013
    Abstract: This paper formulates a strategy for assessing bias, and applies it to quantitative assessments of the disaster of war in Darfur [Sudan]. In so doing it argues for qualitative investigations of quantitative analyses. The strategy examines epistemic and political regimes with the goal of revealing the sources, the directions, and the forces of bias. Examples of bias are discussed to illustrate the strategy including, among others, the draw-a-person IQ test, questions about how old you are or whether you can bear children in Chad, and the US army’s Human Terrain System. Considerable attention is paid to US governmental biasing of its claims of war fatalities and genocide in Darfur. This biasing is shown to involve cherry picking, symbolic violence, and high-channel regimes of bias. It is shown how the bias assessment strategy may be of use in evaluating moral claims.
    Organs-on-a-Chip: A Future of Rational Drug-Design
    Stephen Shay
    Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2017.59003
    Abstract: Many recent advances in biomedical research are related to the combination of biology and microengineering. Microfluidic devices, such as organ-on-a-chip systems, integrate with living cells to allow for the detailed in vitro study of human physiology and pathophysiology. With the poor translation from animal models to human models, the organ-on-a-chip technology has become a promising substitute for animal testing, and their small scale enables precise control of culture conditions and high-throughput experiments, which would not be an economically sound model on a macroscopic level. These devices are becoming more and more common in research centers, clinics, and hospitals, and are contributing to more accurate studies and therapies, making them a staple technology for future drug design.
    Compromise in CDMA Network Planning
    Stephen Hurley, Leigh Hodge
    Communications and Network (CN) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/cn.2010.23023
    Abstract: CDMA network planning, for example in 3G UMTS networks, is an important task whether for upgrading existing networks or planning new networks. It is a time consuming, computationally hard, task and generally requires the consideration of both downlink and uplink requirements. Simulation experiments presented here suggest that if time is a major consideration in the planning process then as a compromise only uplink needs to be considered.
    Culture and Organizational Improvisation in UK Financial 竞彩网app下载安装
    Stephen A. Leybourne
    Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2009.24029
    Abstract: This paper considers certain aspects of a four-year program of research, and addresses the changing cultural requirements to support the rise of improvisational working practices within the UK financial services sector. Specifically, it reports on some of the outcomes of a study encompassing over 100 hours of interviews, together with a variety of other primary and secondary data. The outcomes of the full study are documented elsewhere, and they identify a number of key factors that contribute to the successful use and control of improvisational working practices. One of these factors is a supportive organizational culture, and this specific area is dealt with in this paper. A particular focus is how the sample of organizations has attempted to identify and create supportive cultural conditions for improvisational work to take place. In order to bring clarity to the outcomes of this study, a matrix of the case study organizations is also offered, which segregates those organizations according to their cultural support for improvisation and apparent improvisation effectiveness. Some comment on the current difficulties in the Financial 竞彩网app下载安装 sector has also been included, as it could be argued that improvisation may have contributed to shortcomings in control processes by members of that sector.
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