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    OALib Journal期刊

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    匹配条件: “Djamel Ghernaout” ,找到相关结果约159条。
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    The Best Available Technology of Water/Wastewater Treatment and Seawater Desalination: Simulation of the Open Sky Seawater Distillation
    Djamel Ghernaout
    Green and Sustainable Chemistry (GSC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/gsc.2013.32012
    Abstract: This review suggests the concept of the best available technology of water/wastewater treatment and seawater desalination which is in fact a simulation of the seawater distillation at the open sky: coagulation in salty water aerated basin/ coagulation using seawater as coagulant solution with distillation using stored solar energy followed by waterfall on a natural mountain. This natural, green, and technico-economical technology is composed of three steps: the first one is coagulation which may be achieved: 1) in salty water aerated basin (air stripping, AS; dissolved air flotation, DAF) where the raw water is diluted in seawater; or 2) in conventional coagulation using seawater as coagulant solution instead of alum/ferric salts. The first option seems to be more natural as it simulates river water dilution in seawater and the second one is more practical for rapid water consummation. For colloids and microorganisms’ removal, double-layer compression and charge neutralisation, as main coagulation and disinfection mechanisms, would be involved in the first and second options, respectively. Aerated basin (AS/DAF) reproduces the natural aeration to simulate healthy natural water basin. Using stored solar energy, distillation as the best liquid-solid/liquid-liquid separation process provides the removal of dissolved pollutants. For well balanced calco-carbonic equilibrium, the last step of this green treatment is the waterfall on a natural mountain providing useful gases, dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide, and mineral salts to the water.
    Mechanistic Insight into Disinfection Using Ferrate(VI)  [PDF]
    Djamel Ghernaout, Noureddine Elboughdiri
    Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105946
    Abstract:
    Disinfection, chemical oxidation, and coagulation are key methods in water treatment. A chemical that may be used for all these targets is ferrate(VI). This work tries to bring some light into mechanisms implied throughout killing microbes using ferrate(VI). In acidic pH, the oxidation and reduction capacity of ferrate(VI) is superior to all currently utilized oxidizers and disinfectants in water and wastewater treatment. The technology of using ferrate(VI) for coagulation, chemical oxidation and disinfection of water and wastewater in a reactor simultaneously, can reduce the size of water and wastewater treatment plants and increase the treatment efficiency. Ferrate(VI) allows a novel emergency water treatment design for disaster-affected populations through the repercussions of natural disasters, through the concurrent and efficient elimination of microbial and chemical pollutants. The ferrates’ elevated performance and utilization as a green element for water treatment propose that these techniques remain greatly convenient for usage as pre- or post-treatment in traditional wastewater plants. It seems that there is no big difference in terms of ferrate’s action on pathogens with other chemical disinfectants. However, ferrate was found to be requiring lower needed doses as compared with other chemicals. More researches on disinfection by-products formation following ferrate injection as a disinfectant are required. Finally, ferrate(VI) deserves more attention to be used more largely through worldwide wastewater treatment plants.
    Upgrading Wastewater Treatment Plant to Obtain Drinking Water  [PDF]
    Djamel Ghernaout, Noureddine Elboughdiri
    Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105959
    Abstract:
    With a growing population and expansion, societies worldwide brave lack water for drinking supply. Undeveloped sources of water should be specified to diminish such issues. Direct potable reuse is a supply-side procedure that can enhance the sustainability and reliability of water supplies via recuperating potable water from wastewater. This work assesses the perspective of upgrading the wastewater treatment plants to obtain potable water. Treating wastewater at the highest level of purity to guarantee the drinking water supply is the best approach to avoid the pollution expansion from wastewater even if it is partially treated to minimize its toxic impacts and provide water for irrigation and industrial use purposes. Treating wastewater at present in the actual wastewater treatment plants should be urgently upgraded to provide potable water through adding processes steps such as nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, and adsorption on activated carbon. Evidently, there is an additional cost for these sophisticated techniques to pay for the better future of the humankind. Finally, from the authors’ point of view, treating wastewater must be continuously improved by using more and more developed techniques and consuming directly treated wastewater as potable water must be only considered as the final issue in the case of hard shortage situations for security reasons.
    Water Reuse: Emerging Contaminants Elimination—Progress and Trends  [PDF]
    Djamel Ghernaout, Noureddine Elboughdiri
    Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105981
    Abstract:
    This work concentrates on the review paper published by Ahmed et al. [1] which is dedicated to the elimination of emerging contaminants (ECs) using biological, chemical and hybrid techniques in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Endocrine disruption chemicals (EDCs) are better reduced by a membrane bioreactor (MBR), activated sludge, and aeration processes between various biological processes. Surfactants, EDCs and personal care products (PCPs) may be well reduced using activated sludge processes. Pesticides and pharmaceuticals manifested convenient reduction performances by biological activated carbon. Microalgae treatment techniques may diminish nearly all sorts of ECs to a certain degree. Additional biological methods were observed less efficient in dealing with ECs. Chemical oxidation techniques (like ozonation/H2O2, UV photolysis/H2O2, and photo-Fenton) may greatly eliminate up to 100% of pesticides, beta-blockers, and pharmaceuticals; at the same time, EDCs may be better reduced via ozonation and UV photocatalysis. Fenton method was observed less efficient in treating any sorts of ECs. A merged setup founded on ozonation pursued by biological activated carbon was manifested hugely efficacious in eliminating pesticides, beta-blockers, and pharmaceuticals. An integrated ozonation-ultrasound device may eliminate until 100% of numerous pharmaceuticals. Next research orientations to boost the elimination of ECs have been suggested.
    Electrochemical Technology for Wastewater Treatment: Dares and Trends  [PDF]
    Djamel Ghernaout, Noureddine Elboughdiri
    Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106020
    Abstract:
    For treating wastewater, electrochemical engineering has been rediscovered during the last four decades through the world for its inherent advantages comparatively with traditional technologies especially the chemical and biological techniques. However, the expansion of this technology founded on electric current applying has been retarded by several technical-economic factors especially the detection of disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation. This work focuses on the challenges and future tendencies for this highly-efficient technology to reach the full-scale implementations particularly in disinfecting water. Lately, new versions of electrochemical techniques have been suggested such as employing sulfate radical anion (SO4.-) and sunlight to generate .OH radicals in TiO2 photocatalysis and photo-Fenton water treatment. These improvements elevated the electrochemical engineering efficiency and acceptation. However, more efforts remain to be accomplished for water reuse vision. Future researches would focus on integrating membranes processes such as nanofiltration and reverse osmosis for a safe removal of DBPs.
    Magnetic Field Application: An Underappreciated Outstanding Technology  [PDF]
    Djamel Ghernaout, Noureddine Elboughdiri
    Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106000
    Abstract:
    In diverse 竞彩网app下载安装, as much as 90% of all particles suspended in the oil can be iron or steel and can be particularly troublesome to operators. This article looks at magnetic filtration advantages and benefits; moreover, it focuses on how this physical technology can often outperform traditional methods. Mag-netic filtration is a process in which two objects are separated; one of them has to be metallic, to be attracted by means of magnets. Magnetic systems ideal for the food industry, as they protect the final product and the machinery used in its production process. Another important magnetic field application is in the water treatment technology. Despite the great achievements in the application of the magnetic field through the above-mentioned domains, more efforts should be performed to promote this green technology implementation in the industries in terms of practical usage. More attention has to be accorded by re-searchers to better familiarize industrials with this hugely promising technique.
    Removing Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria (ARB) Carrying Genes (ARGs): Challenges and Future Trends  [PDF]
    Djamel Ghernaout, Noureddine Elboughdiri
    Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106003
    Abstract:
    Developed control of chemical disinfection techniques is beginning to be pro-gressively significant in order to equilibrate under-treatment (minimal pathogen demobilization) and over-treatment (immoderate consumption of disinfectant and disinfection by-products generation) that way giving great ecological and economic advantages. This work reviews the most recent and pertinent re-searches in this field of eliminating Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria (ARB) carrying genes (ARGs) during wastewater treatment especially disinfection. Traditional disinfection techniques may not be efficient in demobilizing ARB and the simultaneous liberation of ARB and antibiotics at sub-lethal concentrations into municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent may promote the develop-ment of resistance among bacteria in receiving water. The pathway of the in-fluences of diverse disinfection techniques in water and wastewater (chlorina-tion, UV irradiation, Fenton reaction, ozonation, and photocatalytic oxidation) deserves more attention. The impacts of constructed wetlands and nanotech-nology on ARB and ARG have to be more explored. As the best available technology, membranes processes should be widely adopted through the world for removing ARB and ARGs from the perspective of reusing treated wastewater as drinking water. These safe barriers against pollutants diffusion in nature merit more technical and economic expansion for their larger industrial application especially in developing countries.
    Is Not It Time to Stop Using Chlorine for Treating Water?  [PDF]
    Djamel Ghernaout, Noureddine Elboughdiri
    Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106007
    Abstract:
    Chlorine is largely used as a disinfectant in the water and wastewater treatment industries through the world despite the fact that is greatly poisonous for hu-man beings. Its toxicity is more extended to generating disinfection by-products during its microorganisms’ killing and action on organic matter present in water. More importantly, recent studies proved the potential impacts of disinfection on transmission of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), particularly for free-living ARGs in final disinfected effluent of urban wastewater treatment plants. Indeed, Escherichia coli concentration prior to chlorination depicted a powerful positive correlation with the extracellular ARGs plenty in the final effluents; however, lower temperature and higher ammonium concentration were suggested to relate with intracellular ARGs. Chlorination could elevate the plenty of ARGs, therefore, inducing danger of the diffusion of antibiotic resistance in nature. Consequently, chlorine toxicity is more and more proved, which appeals its urgent stopping from using it in the treatment of both water and wastewater. The same conclusion was also obtained at least for UV and UV/H2O2 disinfection. Chemical disinfection should be urgently avoided or at least deeply revised. For removing pathogens and treating water, safe multi-barrier methods, such as distillation and membrane processes, have to be adopted.
    Drinking Water Reuse: One-Step Closer to Overpassing the “Yuck Factor”  [PDF]
    Djamel Ghernaout, Noureddine Elboughdiri, Saad Ghareba
    Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105895
    Abstract:
    Water shortage, because of either augmented domestication or climatic variability, has prompted nations to diminish stress on water supplies mostly via decreasing water demand. Nevertheless, this procedure entirely is not enough to ensure the quality of life that high-quality water services boost, particularly inside the case of augmented domestication. Intrinsically, the notion of water reuse (WR) has been reaching strength for the last few decades. Decision-makers require ready and reachable data concerning public attitudes toward WR to adopt convenient and sustainable resource management plans. Applying reclaimed infrastructure must concentrate firstly on usages with more important social acceptability, like street cleaning, car washing, irrigation of parks and athletic fields or toilet flushing. Acceptance of the usage of recycled water for other goals implementations, like food crop irrigation and watering of residential lawns may augment as public knowledge of the system expands. As inhabitants begin to be more usual with the techniques and global comprehension of the linked advantages of WR increases, officials, planners, and managers may encounter reduced objection to extra usages and attain bigger water savings via prolonged application of WR schedules. For potable WR, there is only one-step closer to overpassing the “yuck factor”. However, great efforts remain to be accomplished in mater of hybrid water technologies to assure efficient pollutant removal. Finally, WR may be considered a safe tool to avoid water sources’ contamination. In other words, treating wastewater at its source of generation before its expansion at the highest level of purity will avoid pollution expansion into nature: air, soil, and water. In this case and only in this case, the “yuck factor” will be overpassed.
    Direct Potable Reuse: The Singapore NEWater Project as a Role Model  [PDF]
    Djamel Ghernaout, Noureddine Elboughdiri, Abdulaziz Alghamdi
    Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105980
    Abstract:
    In Singapore, indirect potable water reuse has been applied during the last two decades. Now, water reuse furnishes around 30% of the nation’s water request and the well-known NEWater success story has greatly participated in transforming Singapore into a global hydro hub for pioneering novel water techniques. This work discusses the recent technological improvements and the outlooks for water reuse in Singapore as a model. Fields of attentions comprise membrane exploitation (involving forward, reverse and pressure retarded osmosis, as well as membrane bioreactors), advanced oxidation processes, electrochemical methods, and their combination as cost-effective tailored solutions to tackle novel dares as diverse as direct potable reuse. The challenge is to duplicate the Singapore NEWater success story throughout the world. Efforts should be accomplished to generalize such encouraging and rich experience especially in poor countries where humans are dying because of lack of water or due to diseases caused by contaminated water.
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